After 15 years at W3C and 10 years at KU Med Center, my next gig is at Agoric. Here I answer some questions, some recently asked and some anticipated.
Q: I see a NY Times feature about Tim Berners Lee and his new
company, Inrupt. Did you work with Tim Berners-Lee?
A: yes, from the early 1990s to 2010 we worked together building the Web at W3C.
Q: Are you working with Tim at Inrupt?
A: No, but I am starting a new job at Agoric.
Q: What is Agoric? What do they do?
A: Agoric provides a safer, simpler way to program smart contracts. We believe smart contracts enable the future of global economic cooperation.
Q: Why is it called "Agoric"?
A: Agoric stems from agora, the Greek term for a meeting and market place. An agoric system is a software system using market mechanisms. (Miller and Drexler, 1988)
Q: Smart contracts? What's that?
A: If you've used amazon, ebay, or a vending machine, you've used a smart contract: a contract-like arrangement expressed in software, where the behavior of the software enforces the terms of the contract.
At W3C, a big part of my job was developing the W3C standards process and figuring out how much of it could and should automate; looking back, I think of it as smart contract design.
Q: Are these smart contracts for blockchains and cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin and Ethereum?
A: Yes, Agoric plans to build on the high-integrity shared compute infrastructure provided by blockchains, though the architecture scales down to private clusters and single machines as well. (Miller, 2019)
Agoric is not building on Bitcoin or Ethereum directly, but we are building on mature blockchain technology, the Cosmos SDK. In order to bridge to Ethereum and Bitcoin, Agoric is a leading contributor to IBC, the Inter-Blockchain Communication protocol.
Q: How are smart contracts safer using Agoric's technology?
A: At least three ways:
- Agoric provides offer safety: when you place an offer, either you'll get what you wanted or you get a refund, regardless of the (mis)behavior of the underlying smart contract. This API (Zoe) is built using a couple of more fundamental mechanisms:
- Agoric supports patterns of cooperation without vulnerability using object capabilities (OCaps).
- Agoric avoids reentrancy hazards (such as the $50M DAO bug) using asynchronous eventual-sends.
Q: Do developers have to learn a new programming language to get all this?
Q: Object capabilities? What's that?
A: Capability-based security is like the way we control access to our cars: I use a key to drive my car. I can delegate driving the car to you by handing you the key. But keys are impractical to forge, so effectively, unauthorized people can't drive it.
In contrast, the traditional way to control access to computing resources is with access control lists (ACLs): each file or database table has a list of who can read and write it. If cars worked this way, the car would let me drive it only if I present the right driver's license; perhaps my wife would be on the list too. But if I wanted to delegate to you, I'd have to update the list of drivers in the car. And what if my son got hurt and I wasn't around to update the list of drivers so his friend could get him to the doctor? (Stiegler, 2004)
Valet parking would be pretty tedious. And the trunk would have to have a separate access control list to do what valet keys do.
Worse: what we normally do when we run programs on our computers is like giving my driver's license to you or the valet to let you drive the car. I have to run the risk that you'll do other things with the driver's license like open a bank account in my name. Maybe I trust you not to do that, but every program on my computer can do anything I can do, including mess up all my files and demand a ransom to get them back. And with our computers connected to millions of other computers via the Internet, we're vulnerable to more than just our friends. With capabilities, making things like valet keys is easy so that each program, and each part of a program, gets access to only what it needs in order to do its job; capabilities support the principle of least authority much better than access control lists. (Close, 2009)
I have been excited about capability-based security since 2001 when I discovered OCaps and composable smart contracts(Miller, Morningstar, Frantz, 2000). Since 2010 I have been responsible for the security of a million or so health records in a clinical data research warehouse at KU Med Center. Being constrained to use ACL-based filesystems, databases, and web applictions drives me crazy! The chance to work on smart contracts with OCaps as a day job is a dream come true.
Q: And Berners-Lee's Inrupt? What do they do?
A: Inrupt "aims to reset the balance of power on the web" by giving users control of their data in "pods," personal online data stores. "Each person could control his or her own data — websites visited, credit card purchases, workout routines, music streamed — in an individual data safe, typically a sliver of server space" (NY Times Jan 10). It uses SOLID, a set of open technologies.
Q: What do you think of Inrupt and SOLID?
A: I certainly agree when Tim says that "too much power and too much personal data reside with the tech giants like Google and Facebook". But
- SOLID Web Access Control (WAC) uses ACLs, not capabilities.
- I don't see an integrated economic model in SOLID.
To free users from Google, we have to provide the same sub-second search for all of their email, and I don't see how to do that without bringing the application code to where the data is. We're going to want mash-ups of multiple applications. We need the kind of cooperation without vulnerability that only capability-based security brings. I wonder what would happen if we mixed the Agoric platform's ability to scale down to clusters and single machines with the notion of a SOLID pod.
In 2005, I learned that Internet pioneer Dave Clark took a year off to study economics. Since then it has been pretty clear to me that whatever comes next in the architecture of the Internet and the Web, economics needs to be an integral part of the protocols. Bitcoin came along in 2008 and Ethereum in 2014. Mixing in economics increases the motivation for fraud, which has made me hesitant to commit to the cryptocurrency industry as a career. But the Agoric platform provides an increasing level of safety and most of the team has been working on smart contracts with capability security as long as I've been working on the Web, so I just can't pass up the opportunity to join them as they scale it up to global economic cooperation.